صورة 1 المقدمة

Martyrdom operations and burning the Israeli flag… Palestine in the lenses of Egyptian cinema

Just as Egyptian cinema was concerned with the issues of the Egyptian citizen, it was also concerned with the issues of the Arab world, especially the Arab-Israeli conflict, i.e. the Palestinian Cause, where Palestine has always been the object of greed for colonial armies, starting with the crusade campaign and ending with the Israeli occupation.

Therefore, the Egyptian filmmakers were keen to provide support to our Palestinian fellows. They presented their case and discussed some important figures in the history of the Palestinian struggle. In addition to embodying the suffering of the people by shedding light on the demonstrations and martyrdom operations in which they participate. In addition to expressing the feelings of the Egyptian citizen towards the Palestinian cause, by burning the Israeli flag.

This came through a number of films that will remain firmly rooted in the conscience of every Egyptian and Arab citizen out of solidarity with the Palestinian cause against the Zionist occupation army. Here are some of these films.

A girl from Palestine 1948

يعد هذا الفيلم أول فيلم مصري وعربي يتناول القضية الفلسطينية بالتزامن مع حرب فلسطين، أنتجته رائدة السينما المصرية “عزيزة أمير”، التي حرصت على تقديم الدعم المصري لفلسطين ونقل الجرائم الوحشية للعدو الصهيوني، من خلال قصة “محمود ذو الفقار” وهو ضابط طيار يدافع عن الأراضي الفلسطينية وقت الحرب، ولكن طائرته تسقط في إحدى القرى الفلسطينية بسبب غارة، وتعثر عليه سلمى “سعاد محمد” وتقوم بتطييب جراحه، لنكتشف أن منزلها هو مخزن لأسلحة المقاومة.

This film is the first Egyptian and Arab film that deals with the Palestinian issue in conjunction with the Palestine war. It was produced by the pioneer Egyptian cinema producer “Aziza Amir”, who was keen to express Egyptian support to Palestine and convey the brutal crimes of the Zionist enemy, through the story of “Mahmoud Zulfiqar”, a military pilot who defends Palestinian lands at war, but his plane crashes in one of the Palestinian villages due to a raid, and Salma “Souad Muhammad” finds him and tends to his wounds, to discover that her house is a storehouse for the resistance’s weapons

Nadia 1949

Once again, Amira Aziz presents a film about the Palestinian cause, this time she was the lead actress. The film tells the story of Nadia, whose brother Munir “Shukri Sarhan” is martyred in the Palestine war, so she decides to continue the struggle and volunteer in the Red Crescent, to meet Medhat “Mahmoud Zulfiqar”, her brother’s friend, who rescues her from one of the colonies when she falls into the hands of the enemy.

Allah is on our side 1953

The film tells the story of Officer Ahmed Jamal “Imad Hamdi” who went to participate in the Palestine war with the encouragement of his cousin Nadia “Faten Hamama”. He tries to rely on the influence of his wealthy uncle, Abdel Aziz Pasha, “Mahmoud El Meligy”, only to discover that his uncle is the main arms dealer.

The land of peace 1957

It is the first film filmed inside the occupied Palestinian territories. It presented the life of the militants who are trying to liberate their village from the control of the Israelis, through the story of the Egyptian fighter Ahmed “Omar Sharif”, who participates in the process of blowing up the Israeli fuel tanks that supply the attacking planes with gasoline. After he was shot in the shoulder, he meets Salma “Faten Hamama”, the Palestinian girl who takes care of him until he recovers his strength, and helps her father Sheikh Mazen “Abdul Warith Asser” to cover up Ahmed when the enemy comes to search for him.

Al-Nasser Salahuddin 1963

It is one of the most powerful historical films, and revolves around the period of the Crusades. It reviews the battles fought by the commander Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi, played by the artist “Ahmed Mazhar”, to liberate Jerusalem. Director Youssef Chahine tried to use the events of the film as a kind of projection on modern history, and showed European ambitions in the land of Palestine, which is apparently defending religion, but it is mainly for achieving personal interests and collecting wealth.

Shadows on the other side 1974

The film tackled the issue of the Palestinian struggle through the story of a student who studies at the Faculty of Fine Arts in Cairo, and lives with four young Egyptians on a raft on the Nile, he disagrees with them while each of them tells the events from his point of view. In the end, he gives up his dreams and joins the Palestinian resistance.

Naji Al Ali 1987

The artist “Noor Al-Sharif” was brilliant in the character of the Palestinian artist, Naji Al-Ali, and the story of his assassination in London. The film documents the stations that Naji Al-Ali went through in his life, starting with his displacement with his family to Lebanon, then his work in Kuwait, and his return to Lebanon again during the Lebanese Civil War. The film reviewed his most prominent political stances towards the Palestinian cause, which he recorded in his immortal caricatures to this day.

Saeedy in the AUC 1998

This film was not classified as a political movie. It was primarily a comedy, but it provided support for the Palestinian cause in one of its scenes, when Khalaf Al-Dahshoury “Mohammed Henedy”, a student at the American University in Cairo, with the participation of his colleagues, burned the flag of Israel inside the university in protest against the Zionist occupation and its practices against the Palestinians. It was the first time that burning the flag of Israel was included in a film, as burning the flags of countries in the cinema is prohibited by law, because it threatens the higher interests of the state.

Hammam in Amsterdam 1999

Once again, Muhammad Henedy presented an impressive scene in support of Palestine during the events of the comedy, as one of his scenes included a fight between a group of Arab expatriate youth in the Netherlands, for a Palestinian young man to sing the song “The Arab Dream” in an attempt to end the quarrel between friends, as the scene included a message about the necessity of ending any dispute between the Arab brothers, and of solidarity together to support the Palestinian cause.

Friends or Business Partners 2001

The film sheds light on the martyrdom operations carried out by Palestinian youth against the Israeli occupation, where Karim Nour “Mustafa Qamar” travels to record a program on the Palestinian uprising, and gets to know the Palestinian youth Jihad “Amr Waked”, who takes him on a tour inside the Palestinian territories, after which he performs a martyrdom operation. He bombed himself next to a group of Israeli soldiers, while Karim was filming him.

The volcano of wrath 2002

The events of the film take place in the Palestinian refugee camps, where the Palestinian youngman Khaled Shabib “Tamer Hejres” assassinates an Israeli official, and is pursued by the Israeli intelligence. Then, he travels to Egypt to try to conclude an arms deal, facing many difficulties, and the film sends a message to unite the ranks of the Arabs, and the need to support the Palestinians with weapons What they need to win.

The Embassy is in the building 2005

فيلم آخر يقدم الدعم للقضية الفلسطينية بشكل كوميدي، حيث يعود المهندس شريف خيري “عادل إمام” ليجد السفارة الإسرائيلية قد اتخذت موقعها في الشقة المجاورة له، فيعاني بسبب الإجراءات الأمنية المشددة التي تفرض عليه، ويقوم برفع قضية لإخراج السفارة من العمارة، ويتحول إلى رمز شعبي للنضال، ولكن سرعان ما يتنازل عن القضية بسبب بعض الضغوطات. إلا أنه يستأنف نضاله مرة أخرى بعد استشهاد الطفل إياد ابن صديقه الفلسطيني، على يد الجنود الإسرائيلين اثناء مشاركته في إحدى المظاهرات.

Another movie that provides support for the Palestinian cause in a comic way, where the engineer Sherif Khairy “Adel Imam” returns to find the Israeli embassy has taken its location in the apartment next to him. He suffers because of the strict security measures imposed on him. He files a case to get the embassy out of the building, and turns into a popular symbol to struggle, but soon give up the case due to some pressure. However, he resumes his struggle again after the martyrdom of the child Iyad, the son of his Palestinian friend, at the hands of Israeli soldiers while participating in a demonstration.

Despite the great Egyptian films that embodied the painful Palestinian reality throughout history, and despite the continued ignition of the Palestinian cause, we note that it has gradually begun to disappear from the screens of the Egyptian cinema. For more than fifteen years, no film has discussed the Palestinian struggle against the occupation forces of Israel, which makes the matter questionable! Why has Palestine disappeared from Egyptian cinema, when we must support it today more than ever?

صورة 1

Despite reaching global ranks, why haven’t Egyptian movies win an Oscar?

The Academy Award, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in the United States of America, is the most prominent annual global award for cinematic arts. Filmmakers eagerly anticipate it every year, because winning an Oscar adds great value to the film and its makers.

And the Academy Award is not limited to English-speaking films only. In 1956, the Academy added a new category within the award categories, which is the category of films in a foreign language. Although Egypt has submitted 34 films to participate in the festival since that time, none of the films that were officially submitted were accepted for the final competition for the Oscar for Best Foreign Film.

ويبدأ تاريخ السينما المصرية والعربية مع هذه الجائزة في عام 1958، عندما تقدمت مصر بفيلم “باب الحديد” من بطولة هند رستم وفريد شوقي وإخراج يوسف شاهين، وذلك في الدورة الـ 31 من الجائزة، حيث تنافس الفيلم مع 9 أفلام أخرى، لكنه لم يصل إلى مرحلة الترشيحات النهائية. ومن بعده توالت مصر في تقديم الأفلام للمشاركة في مسابقة الأوسكار، حيث تم ترشيح فيلم “دعاء الكروان” من إخراج بركات وبطولة أمينة رزق وفاتن حمامة وأحمد مظهر، في عام 1959. وبعده فيلم “المراهقات” إخراج أحمد ضياء الدين، وبطولة ماجدة ورشدي أباظة، في 1960.

The history of Egyptian and Arab cinema begins with this award in 1958, when Egypt presented the movie “Bab Al Hadid” starring Hind Rostom and Farid Shawqi and directed by Youssef Chahine, in the 31st session of the award. The film competed with 9 other films. However, it did not reach Final nomination stage. After that, Egypt continued to submit films to participate in the Oscar competition, where the movie “Doaa Al-Karwan” directed by Barakat and starring Amina Rizk, Faten Hamama and Ahmed Mazhar, was nominated in 1959. Then the movie “Adolescents” directed by Ahmed Dia El Din, starring Magda and Rushdi Abaza, in 1960.

In 1961, the movie “Oh Islam”, starring Lubna Abdel Aziz and Ahmed Mazhar, directed by Shadi Abdel Salam, was nominated. The movie “The Thief and the Dogs” directed by Kamal Al-Sheikh in 1962, starring Shadia and Shukri Sarhan, was also nominated. Then, the movie “The Mother of the Bride” by Atef Salem in 1963, starring Tahia Karioka and Imad Hamdi, The movie “The Impossible” by Hussein Kamal and starring Nadia Lutfi and Kamal Al-Shennawi, in 1965. While the nomination in 1966 went to the movie “Cairo 30” by Salah Abu Seif, starring Soad Hosni and Ahmed Mazhar.

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After 3 years of absence, Egypt returned again in 1970 to participate in the Academy Award with the film “The Mummy” directed by Shadi Abdel Salam, starring Nadia Lotfy. Then the movie “A woman and a Man” starring Nahid Al Sharif and Rushdi Abaza and directed by Hossam Al Din Mustafa, in 1971. The movie “My Wife and the Dog” by Saeed Marzouk and starring Soad Hosni, Mahmoud Morsi and Nour Al Sharif, in 1972, in the 70th Academy Awards session.

In 1973, Egypt nominated the movie “Empire of M”, directed by Hussein Kamal, starring Faten Hamama and Ahmed Mazhar. As well as the movie “I want a solution” directed by Saeed Marzouk in 1975, starring Faten Hamama and Rushdi Abaza. In 1976, the movie “Who Shall We Shoot?” was nominated, starring Soad Hosni, Mahmoud Yassin and Ezzat Al-Alayli, directed by Kamal Al-Sheikh.

While director Youssef Chahine presented his second film at the Oscars, “Alexandria, Why?” in 1979, starring Naglaa Fathy, Mohsen Mohieldin and Ahmed Zaki. The film “People of the Summit”, directed by Ali Badrakhan, was nominated for the award in 1981, starring Nour Sharif and Soad Hosni. After Egypt’s absence from the Oscars for a period of 8 years, this time, it returned again to nominate a new film by director Youssef Chahine in 1990, the movie “Alexandria More and More”, starring Yousra, Hussein Fahmy and Amr Abdel Galil.

Director Daoud Abdel Sayed participated in 1994, for the movie “The Land of Dreams”, starring Faten Hamama, Yahya Al-Fakharani and Hisham Selim. While the film “The Destiny”, directed by Youssef Chahine and starring Laila Elwi, Nour El-Sherif and Mahmoud Hemida, was nominated for the 70th Academy Award in 1997. In 2001, a youth film starring Maya Shiha and Sherif Ramzy was nominated, the film ” Secrets of Girls”, directed by Magdy Ahmed Ali.

Also in 2003, the controversial film “Sahar Al-Layali” was nominated, starring Mona Zaki, Hanan Turk, Ola Ghanem, Jihan Fadel, Ahmed Helmy, Sherif Mounir, Khaled Abu Naga and Fathi Abdel Wahab, and the film is directed by Hani Khalifa. The film “I love cinema” directed by Osama Fawzy, starring Laila Elwi and Mahmoud Hamida, was also nominated in 2004, and the film “The Yacoubian Building” by Marwan Hamed in 2006, which included a large group of stars, most notably Yousra, Adel Imam and Nour Al Sharif.

As for the movie “In the Heliopolis Apartment” by director Muhammad Khan, it was chosen in 2007 to represent Egypt for the 80th Academy Award nomination, starring Ghada Adel and Khaled Abul-Naga. Then the movie “Al-Jazeera” in 2008, starring Hend Sabry, Ahmed El-Sakka and Khaled El-Sawy, directed by Sherif Arafa. The movie “Letters of the Sea” directed by Daoud Abdel Sayed in 2010, starring Basma and Aser Yassin was also nominated.

Then the movie “Longing ” starring Sawsan Badr and Ruby, directed by Khaled Al-Hajar, was presented to participate in the Oscars 2011. And the movie “The Last Winter ” in 2013, directed by Ibrahim Al-Batout and starring Farah Youssef and Amr Waked. The nomination was in 2014 to Yasmine Rais and Hani Adel, through the movie “Factory Girl” directed by Muhammad Khan. Then the movie “Engage”, directed by Mohamed Diab, starring Nelly Karim, Hani Adel, Ahmed Malik and Ahmed Dash, in 2016.

In 2017, the committee tasked with selecting the Oscar-nominated Egyptian film nominated Sheikh Jackson, directed by Amr Salama, starring Amina Khalil, Dora, Ahmed El-Fishawy and Ahmed Malik, to participate in the 90th Academy Awards. In 2018, the film “Yom El Din” directed by Abu Bakr Shawky was nominated. The film stars Radi Gamal and Ahmed Abdel Hafez. The film “Poisonous Roses” directed by Fawzi Saleh was also selected to participate in the 2019 Oscar nominations, starring Marehan Magdy and Mahmoud Hamida. Finally, the movie “When We Are Born” starring Dana Hamdan, Amr Abed, Amir Eid and Mohamed Hatem, directed by Tamer Ezzat.

صورة 1

Hot scenes, political reasons, and contempt for religions. Learn about the boldest Egyptian films banned from movie theatres

For more than 110 years, Egyptian cinema has produced at least 4,000 films, some of which have never been seen by the public, some of which have been banned from showing in cinemas for a long time, and others are still banned from television to this day. These films did not appear either because they violate public morals, or because they contain scenes hostile to the heavenly religions, and some of them were even banned from showing for political reasons.

In case the censorship is only related to cinema in your mind, then you are completely wrong, as censorship appeared in Egypt several years before the cinema entered, specifically in 1881, when a law on censorship was issued. In 1904, cinema was added to the censorship law, while theater did not join the law until 1911.

The censors interfered with the artwork, whether by modifying the scenes or deleting them permanently, as well as sometimes interfering to prevent entire films from being shown. Although these films were prevented from showing on cinema and television screens, some of them found another way to spread through websites and social media platforms. In this article, we will review the most prominent films that were banned from showing in Egypt.

  •  The Prophet Muhammad.

Censorship used to be on the lookout for films, even before they were filmed and shown, which is what happened with the movie “The Prophet Muhammad”, which a foreign company tried to produce in 1926,  starring Youssef Wehbe. However, as soon as he announced his signing of the contract with director Wedad Orfi, Youssef Wehbe faced strong opposition and continuous attack, reaching the point of calling for a fatwa to denounce him from the Islamic religion, withdraw his citizenship and expel him from Egypt.

The censors announced that the idea of the film is subject to ban because it violates the sanctity of heavenly religions. This film was the reason for Al-Azhar to issue a fatwa prohibiting the personification of the prophets and companions. Which made Youssef Wehbe apologize to the producing company for participating in the film.

  •  The Tragedy of Life

The movie “The Tragedy of Life”, which was produced in 1929, is the first movie that was completely banned from showing in the history of Egyptian cinema at the request of censors, due to sexual scenes and pornographic dancing. Although the film was silent, and the dialogue was written on the screen, the dialogue sentences were obscene. This prompted Abd al-Salam al-Nabulsi, who was working as an art critic at the time, to launch a press campaign to demand that the film be banned until the censors responded.

The film starred an Egyptian actor and director of Turkish origin, Wedad Orfi, and Turkish dancer, Ifranz Hanim. Its events revolve around a playful dancer who seeks to make two brothers fall in love with her to deceive them to get their money.

  • Lachine

In 1938, the movie “Lachine” was shown, directed by German Fritz Kramp, starring Hassan Ezzat, Hussein Riad, and Nadia Naji, and the film revolves around Lachine, who is the army chief, and is characterized by justice, unlike the prime minister, who profits from his position at the expense of the people, and Lachine tries to alert the weak ruler with polygamous relationships to what the Prime Minister is doing, so Lachine is framed, and he is imprisoned.

The film was prevented from showing after politicians told King Farouk that the film was intended for him, so he asked Ahmed Hassanein Pasha, the head of the court, to issue a decision to stop showing the film.

  • Sheikh Hassan

The movie “Sheikh Hassan” was banned from showing three times, as it was initially shown under the name “Laylat al-Qadr”, and the film dealt with the story of the religious Sheikh who leaves his home after a dispute with his father, and marries a Christian girl despite the opposition of her family. It stars Hussein Sidqi, Laila Fawzy, and Huda Sultan. It was banned for the first time because of what was reported to be inciting sedition between Christians and Muslims.

After the July 23 revolution, the artist Hussein Sedky demanded that the film be shown again, but he met with many objections again, so President Mohamed Naguib ordered the film to be removed from the theaters. In 1954, Hussein Sidqi added some new scenes to the film, and changed its name to “Sheikh Hassan”, then requested permission to show it. The Egyptian Catholic Center for Cinema once again objected to the film’s showing. President Gamal Abdel Nasser was afraid that the film’s continuation would affect its popularity among Christians, so it ordered it to be removed from theaters for the third time, and the film has remained banned from showing until this day.

  • My father is up there

When we mention the phrase forbidden to be shown, the movie “My Father is up there” is the first movie that comes to mind. The film sparked a lot of controversy at the time of its release and was prevented by censorship after it set the record for the number of kisses that appeared in one movie, as the film contained more than 50 kisses between its heroes Abdel Halim Hafez, Nadia Lutfi, and Mervat Amin.

The events of the film revolve around a university student who meets a dancer in a nightclub and falls in love with him and convinces him to live with her and spend her money on him. Same nightclub. The film was produced in 1969, and it is the story of the writer Ihsan Abdel Quddus.

  • Strangers

The movie “Strangers” boldly touched on many religious issues that were silenced due to fear of creating confusion, and took a philosophical character for several phenomena, including religious extremism and the conflict between faith and atheism. The film was banned for fear of angering the public, as some critics argued that it might push young people to atheism.

The movie “Strangers” starring Soad Hosni, Hussein Fahmy, Ezzat Al-Alayli, and Imad Hamdi, directed by Saad Arafa, and produced in 1973. It is forbidden to be shown to this day, and although there is a copy of the movie on the Internet, it is not the full version of the movie, as many scenes have been deleted.

  • Hammam Al Malatili

The movie “Hammam El Malatili”, which was produced in 1973, is one of the most famous cinematic works that were banned from showing, as its story revolves around a young man who meets a night girl and a flaming love story develops between them. The young man works in Hammam al-Malatili in the aesthetic and gets acquainted closely with the world of homosexuality, and he also falls into a sinful relationship with the wife of the owner of the hammam. The film is directed by Salah Abu Seif and starring Shams Al-Baroudi, Youssef Shaaban, and Muhammad Al-Arabi.

The censors banned the film from being shown because of its immoral content, and its explicit scenes, in addition to its discussion of the issue of homosexuality. In the 1990s, the censors allowed the film to be shown in cinemas again after many scenes were deleted. However, it is still banned from showing on television until now.

  • The guilty ones.

The latest movie “The Guilty Ones” revolves around a murder in which a famous actress is a victim, and the police begin to investigate all those related to the murder victim, to reveal her branching relationships with people of great influence and power, and it becomes clear that each of them has a crime of corruption no less horrific than murder. Because it contained a large number of daring sexual scenes, in addition to addressing the issue of corruption in the regime, the film, directed by Saeed Marzouk and starring Suhair Ramzy, Hussein Fahmy, Zubaida Tharwat, and Kamal Al-Shennawi, was banned. The film is based on the novel by the great writer Naguib Mahfouz and was produced in 1975.

The Censorship Authority for Artistic Works faced a major crisis at the time, because of its approval to show this film, as the head of the agency, moderate excellent, was referred to the pension, and she and 14 others from the agency were transferred to the Supreme Disciplinary Court by order of President Sadat, on charges of a grave breach of the duties of the job. A decision was also issued to tighten the basic rules of censorship of artistic works, which filmmakers considered a crime against Egyptian cinema.

  • Karnak.

The movie “Al-Karnak” dealt with the issue of the repressive practices of the intelligence services, through the story of a group of university students who are arrested and tortured, and forced to confess to crimes they did not commit, and some of them are forced to work as spies inside the university for the security services. The film is directed by Ali Badrakhan, starring Soad Hosni, Nour Al-Sharif, Kamal Al-Shennawi, Farid Shawqi, Shwikar, and Muhammad Sobhi, and was produced in 1975.

Because of the film, Salah Nasr, the former head of intelligence, filed a lawsuit, demanding that it stop showing on the pretext that the film embodies his character through the role of the security man presented by artist Kamal El-Shennawy. The film also met with Youssef El Sebaei, the Minister of Culture at the time, and demanded that the character of the left-wing intellectual be removed by the artist Mohamed Sobhi. The film was only allowed to be shown after changing its ending and deleting some scenes, but the original scenes were shown after the approval of President Anwar Sadat after he met with the scriptwriter Mamdouh Al-Leithi.

  • Khamsa Bab

The movie “Khamsa Bab” is adapted from the foreign film “Irma la Doss”, produced in 1983, starring Adel Imam, Nadia Al-Jundi, and Fouad Al-Muhandis, and directed by Nader Jalal. Its events take place inside the prostitution neighborhood in Cairo, where a policeman resists corruption and bullying inside the neighborhood until a trap is set up for him and he is dismissed from his work in the police, so he joins one of the dens of vice to help arrest the neighborhood thug.

Although the film obtained the approval of the censorship, it was banned only 5 days after it was shown in cinemas, by a decision issued by the Minister of Culture, because of the insults to Egypt’s reputation and its indecent scenes. This prompted the film’s producer to file a case in court and obtained a decision to release the film 8 years after its premiere.

  • The Innocent.

The film “The Innocent” was directed by Atef Al-Tayeb, which starred Ahmed Zaki, Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, Jamil Ratib, and Mamdouh Abdel Alim, and was produced in 1986, is considered one of the most controversial Egyptian films. The film dealt with the concept of military obedience through a conscript who joins the armed forces. And he works as a prison guard, and he is deluded that everyone in the prison is the enemy of the homeland, and he is also taught blind obedience. Until his friend is arrested and placed in the same prison, the conscript refuses to torture his friend, and the truth is revealed to him and regrets what he did to the innocent prisoners, and decides to take revenge, especially after killing his friend.

The film faced the objection of many parties, including the Censorship Authority on Artistic Works and the Ministries of Defense and Interior, and the censors insisted on changing the events of the end. Indeed, the film was shown with a different ending, and the original ending was not allowed to be shown until 19 years later, at the opening of the 2005 National Film Festival.

  • The Monk

The film “The Monk” reveals the nature of the life of monks in the Christian faith, who secede from the world and live without a wife or children. It is one of the films that was banned even before the end of filming. Despite the approval of the Coptic Orthodox Church and Pope Shenouda to show the film, a decision was issued by President Anwar El-Sadat to ban its screening permanently, with all filmmakers threatening to expel outside Egypt if filming is completed, for fear of sect strife among the segments of society, especially after sectarian strife. That occurred in Egypt after the famous “Khanka” incident, which occurred in 1972.