صورة 1

A journey to the world of jinn and demons in Egyptian cinema

Egyptian cinema witnessed multiple attempts to discuss issues of other worlds and the unseen, including the world of jinn and demons. Over the course of its long history, Egyptian cinema has suffered from severe poverty in the production of these types of films, due to the high production costs, and the lack of modern technologies that allow the production of the necessary optical illusions. Despite this, many artists excelled in presenting these types of roles, sometimes comical and sometimes terrifying. So let us take you on a journey with the films that talked about jinn and demons in the history of Egyptian cinema  .

Hell's Ambassador 1945

The beginning kick to entering this complex world was for the artist Youssef Wehbe, through the events of the movie “The Ambassador of Hell”, which was classified as the oldest horror movie in Egyptian and Arab cinema, where he presented the role of the devil with a bloody face and broken teeth in his black cloak, who succeeds in controlling the A simple poor family offering them youth and money, so the husband and wife go into a life of vice and forbidden relationships, and the son gets involved in a murder.

The Demon of Ismail Yassin 1954

The movie “The Demon of Ismail Yassin” touched on the world of jinn and demons from a comic and somewhat fictional perspective, as its story revolves around Kitty, a dancer who works in a nightclub, where the owner of the club plans to kill her to obtain her life insurance policy to pay off his debts, and after Kitty’s death appears her imp or her spirit. To her friend Ismail (Ismail Yassin), and she uses him to find the killer, everyone thinks that he is the killer, and he gets into many problems, but in the end he succeeds in arresting the killer and delivers him to justice.

A date with the devil 1955

During the events of the movie “A Date with Satan”, the artist Mahmoud El-Meligy presented the role of the devil who disguises the character of a doctor named Nabil, to make a deal with Dr. Rajab (Zaki Rostom), giving him the ability to know the diseases that his patients suffer and treat them with ease, and Ragab gets wide fame And he achieves a huge fortune, until his son suffers from a rare disease, so he turns to Nabil for help, so that the devil appears as he is and asks him to believe in him, otherwise his son will die.

The magic lantern 1960

Another movie that deals with the world of the demons in a comic way, the movie “The Magic Lantern”, where the artist Mahmoud Farag appears as the sprite, “Afrkush bin Bartkoush”, who has been imprisoned for thousands of years inside a magical lantern that Mustafa Al-Furrish (Ismail Yassin) gets by chance, and after his liberation, the sprite decides He returned the favor to Mustafa by fulfilling 7 wishes for him, so some incidents occur that prevent the fulfillment of all Mustafa’s wishes, who eventually discovers that success does not need a magic lantern, but rather it needs struggle, self-reliance and not despair.

The woman who defeated Satan 1973

The movie “The Woman Who Conquered Satan” dealt with the story of Shafiqa (Neamat Mukhtar), the vengeful maid whom everyone treats harshly, including the journalist Mahmoud (Noor Al-Sharif), who loved him but did not feel her. To give him her soul after ten years, so Shafiqa turns into a beautiful millionaire, and returns to take revenge on everyone who treated her cruelly, and begins chasing the journalist who suddenly commits suicide, and Shafiqa collapses and decides to repent, and when the devil tries to remind her of the deal, she burns him with the strength of her faith.

Man and Jinn 1985

The artist Adel Imam excelled in presenting the role of a demon from the jinn called Jalal Sultan, during the events of the movie “The Humans and the Jinn”, where he appears to a young doctor named Fatima (Yousra) and tries to get close to her and marry her, and confesses to her his truth, and when she refuses to marry him, he warns her against marrying her colleague Osama (Izzat Al-Alayli), and when Fatima fails to get rid of him, she enters a psychiatric clinic and tries to commit suicide. Jalal rescues her and takes her back to the hospital. To his surprise, Osama reads the Qur’an, which makes Jalal disappear from her life.

The Exorcism 1987

After the success of the movie “Al-Anas and Al-Jinn”, actress Yousra was keen to present a similar theme through the movie “The Exorcism”, in which the artist Fouad Khalil presented the role of Satan, disguised as a businessman who seeks to buy the house of Professor Mahmoud (Mahmoud Yassin) and his wife Rawya (Yousra). Who lives with their son, the mother of the husband and his two sisters, and after the family refuses to sell the house, a series of strange events begins, such as the burning of furniture on its own and the appearance of blood in the bathroom.

Cheif Omar Harb 2008

The movie “Cheif Omar Harb” provided an implicit reference to the devil through the character of the artist Khaled Saleh, who runs a gambling casino. And when he sees the extraordinary abilities of his boss, which is represented in his ability to control the game of roulette by winning and losing, he seeks to imitate it to earn more money, he finds himself immersing himself more in the devil’s world full of a lot of theft, exploitation, revenge and forbidden sexual relations, and when Khaled tries to get out of the casino world. Fearing for his life, if his case becomes exposed, he discovers that everything that happened to him was with the knowledge and planning of Omar Harb himself, so Khaled surrenders and decides to remain under the control of Satan.

You fly 2009

The movie “You Fly” presented the world of the jinn and the goblin in a comic way, through a puck of the good jinn called Mared (Majid Al-Kadwani), who seeks to obtain a certificate stating his success in fulfilling a human’s wish so that he can graduate from school, so he appears to the veterinarian, with an introverted personality, Bahij (Ahmed Makki) and tries to help him to attract the attention of the girl he loves, by giving him different personalities, and when Baheej despairs of attempts to win the girl’s love, he decides to give the imp his signature on the success certificate. another, which eventually makes him succeed in attracting the girl’s attention and marrying her.

The Blue Elephant 2014 - 2019

The movie “The Blue Elephant” in its parts, is one of the most successful films that discussed the mysterious side of the world of jinn and demons. It tells the story of psychiatrist Yahya Rashid (Karim Abdel Aziz), who is surprised after returning to work at Abbasiya Hospital, with the involvement of his lifelong friend and classmate Sharif Al-Kurdi (Khaled Al-Sawy). ) In the case of killing his pregnant wife after raping her, Yahya discovers during the events that a genie named Nael is wearing Sharif and controlling his actions, and during the events he learns how to overcome him and can get him out of his friend’s body, so that Nael returns in the second part to inhabit the body of a woman named Farida (Hind Sabri), He makes her kill her husband and daughter, so she is deposited in the same hospital, to meet Dr. Yahya and notice the similarity of her condition with that of his friend Sharif, and succeeds at the end of the events in helping her and expelling the genie Nael from her body.

Warda 2014

The movie “Warda” presented an overview of the terrifying world of jinn and demons, as it reviews a true story that took place in an Egyptian village, through the character of the rural girl Warda (Nada Al-Alfi), who falls into a bad psychological state after the death of her father, to start some strange events in the house such as hearing the voice of Heavy knocking on the doors with sounds of distress, so her mother sought the help of one of the sheikhs who specialize in cases of demonic possession, and the Sheikh recited the Qur’an on the head of a rose, and when she was not disturbed by the Qur’an, the Sheikh made sure that the touch that hit her was not from the jinn or demons, and when a rose was alone with her mother, she told her that The one who inhabited her body is the spirit of her younger sister, Faten, who died 5 years ago, then she kills her mother and brother, so she is arrested and placed in a mental hospital.

Azazel son of Satan 2014

The film deals with the story of Omar (Ayman Ismail), a young man who has the talent of seeing elves from his childhood, and who learned how to deal with them and control them through Sheikh Saad (Abdul Salam Al-Dahshan). He finds her in unnatural circumstances that threaten her life, as the genie Azazel has been summoned with a magic spell to wear her and make her perform terrifying and crazy behaviors. Omar succeeds with the help of Sheikh Saad in defeating Azazel and removing him from Roba’s body, using the Holy Quran

صورة 1

On World Friendship Day… Films that embodied the loyalty of friends in Egyptian cinema

True friendship is one of the noblest and noblest human relations, and there is no person among us who does not wish to find a true friend to share his sorrows and joys and share his memories, so in 2011 the United Nations General Assembly announced the selection of July 30 of each year to celebrate the International Day of Friendship, and not only the friendship of individuals but As well as friendship between peoples, countries and different cultures, and given the critical importance of the relationship of friendship between humans, many cinematic works have shed light on it.

Our Good Days 1955

The movie “Our Good Days” is one of the first Egyptian films that dealt with the true value of friendship between three young people who were united by poverty and shared housing on the roof of a building. We meet Ahmed (Omar Sharif), a student at the Faculty of Agriculture, who is forced to borrow money from his rich, miserly uncle, in exchange for bills that he pays after his graduation. There is Ramzy (Ahmed Ramzy), who fails his studies at the Faculty of Commerce because of his love for boxing. And finally, Ali (Abdul Halim Hafez), who studies at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and his wealthy uncle covets him to marry his daughter.

The three friends fall in love with Huda (Faten Hamama), an orphan girl who has moved to live on the same roof, but she tends to Ahmed because of his dignity and calmness, and agrees to marry him. Ramzy gets angry and leaves the surface, but he returns again after learning of Hoda’s disease, who has tuberculosis and needs surgery. Friends sell all their possessions and each seeks to get the necessary money in his own way, in an attempt to save their friend, who dies before the operation.

Teach Me Love 1957

The movie “Teach Me Love” presented the story of three young people who have been friends since childhood, Ghorab (Abdul Salam Al-Nabulsi), who loves his neighbor Mimi (Nelli Mazloum), the owner of the dance school. Mamdouh (Ahmed Ramzy) is a young playboy with multiple female relationships. and Sami (Saad Abdel-Wahhab), who enrolls in a girls’ school. Sami falls in love with the romantic girl Nawal (Iman) and is afraid of telling her his feelings because she is his student. Mamdouh meets Nawal by chance, as he has a working relationship with her father, and tries to make her fall in love with him, so he uses his friend Sami to write romantic letters to her. Indeed, Sami writes the most tender words, evoking the image of Nawal, which he loves so much.

Because of the tender and romantic feelings in the letters, Nawal agrees to her engagement to Mamdouh, and Sami discovers by chance that Nawal is Mamdouh’s fiancée, so he suppresses his love in his heart and blesses his friend. On his desk and making sure that he was the one who wrote her the romantic letters, she told him that she never loved Mamdouh and that she was attached to him because of his romantic letters, but Sami refuses to confess his love for her or write letters so as not to lose his friend Mamdouh, who listens to their conversation and decides to sacrifice his fiancée for his friend, stressing To him, it does not matter that they fell in love with the same girl, but the important thing is the person that Nawal loved.

Goodbye my friend 1987

The movie “Goodbye, my friend” is one of the most famous works of art that embodied the true friendship and loyalty to a friend, and the name of the movie has become a common phrase among friends to this day, as if it carries with it feelings of brotherhood and strong friendship, such as the one that brought together the film’s heroes. This work presented the story of two good friends, Marzouk (Adel Imam) and Barakat (Saeed Saleh), who work in the watermelon trade with the street vendor Duck (Sawsan Badr). . On the night of the wedding, Barakat is killed by a rival merchant, so Marzouk avenges the death of his friend by killing the competing merchant and his gang, sacrificing his future so that his friend may rest in peace.

Dantila 1998

The movie “Dantila” tells the story of the friendship of Sahar (Yousra) and Maryam (Ilham Shaheen), who are friends since childhood despite the great social difference between them. Alexandria, and residing with her friend. By chance, the two friends meet detective Lieutenant-Colonel Hossam Anbar (Mahmoud Hamida), who is keen to help the two girls, so he provides a job opportunity to stay up late in a large hotel, and helps Maryam find a suitable law firm. The two girls fall in love with Hossam, and her friend Mariam stays up late with the truth of her feelings, and Maryam refuses to marry Hossam so as not to lose her friend, and agrees to marry Wajdi (Mahmoud Qabil), a businessman, and travels with him to Canada, but she cannot forget her love for Hossam, so she asks for a divorce. She returns to Egypt to be surprised by her friend’s marriage to her lover, so she is jealous and offers the marriage to Hossam, and he agrees, and the two friends become mischievous.

Conflict and competition begins between the two friends until Sahar gets injured in an accident and is taken to the hospital, and decides to end this misery and sacrifice herself and ask for a divorce, but Hossam feels unhappy and tries to marry her secretly, but she refuses, so he asks her to enter into a relationship without marriage, and Maryam hears him and asks for a divorce too because of his selfishness The relationship between the two friends is as strong as it was.

Friends or Business Partners 2001

The events of the movie “Ashab Wala Business” revolve around Karim Nour (Mostafa Qamar) and Tariq Al-Seyoufi (Hani Salama), who work together on a satellite channel, and they have a strong friendship that extends from their university days, but jealousy runs in their hearts because of the working conditions, so lifelong friends turn into Enemies and rivals, and each of them begins to plot some small pranks in order to destroy the other. The two friends compete to win a huge advertising campaign, and at the same time the events of the Palestinian uprising erupt, the channel director chooses Tariq to shoot the advertising campaign, while he decides to send Karim to record an episode of his entertainment program in Palestine, in order to keep pace with events.

During the trip, Karim gets acquainted with the Palestinian youth Jihad (Amr Waked) and films the process of his martyrdom, but he suffers from many problems when he returns to work, as the channel director refuses to broadcast the video of the martyrdom operation that he filmed, and is suspended from work. Tariq decides to leave the differences aside and stand by his friend in his crisis, and helps him show the video and deliver the truth to the viewers. In the end, Karim returns to work in the channel, and the strong friendship between them returns and triumphs over competition and temptations.

A true friend 2002

The movie “A true friend” presented the distinguished relationship of friendship and sacrifice between its heroes despite the alienation that separated them, as events revolved around a childhood friend Osama (Mohamed Henedy), who lives with his grandfather, and Gad (Ashraf Abdel Baqi), who is the only son of an old mother. The two friends obtain a secondment to one of the Gulf countries, and they agree that one of them will remain to take care of the family, and that he will travel after the return of the other. Gad travels abroad and returns after 5 years on a short vacation, and Osama tries to prevent him from traveling again, by claiming that he has a fatal disease with no hope of treatment. And when Gad discovers the truth and gets angry with a friend of his age, Osama tells him that he did all this so that a friend of his age would not travel and be deprived of him as he was deprived of his parents before, so Gad refuses to travel again, and decides to stay by his friend’s side.

Staying up at nights 2003

The movie ” Staying up at nights 2003″ discusses the problems and secrets in the lives of four friends, Khaled (Fathi Abdel Wahab), who is proud of his wife Berry’s (Mona Zaki) infidelity. Ali (Khaled Abu al-Naga) and his wife Mushira (Jihan Fadel), who suffers from apathy in her sexual life with him. And Amr (Ahmed Helmy) and his wife Farah (Hanan Turk), who had a love affair with his friend Ali and always seeks to provoke feelings of jealousy in Ali and Mashira, by proving that her relationship with Amr is more successful and romantic. Finally, Sameh (Sherif Mounir), who prefers to remain in a love affair without marriage with his lover Inas (Ola Ghanem).

The events begin with friends gathering to celebrate the birthday of Berry and Khaled’s daughter, and after the ceremony, disputes erupt between husbands and their wives, and events escalate with them, after which the four young men decide to travel to Alexandria to enjoy their time and relive the old days. After a series of dramatic events, they feel that they are no longer reckless youth, but rather mature men, and each of them must realize his mistake and work to repair his relationship with his life partner, so that the film ends with the return of each husband to his wife, but without a clear and explicit solution to their problems, in reference to the real life that there is no It always has happy endings.

Good old days 2004

The movie “The Good Old Days” presented the relationship of childhood friends in a different and innovative way, through the story of the young girl Salma (Hanan Turk), who decides to leave the house after the death of her mother, due to her unwillingness to live with her stepfather, who discovers that she cannot communicate with him, so he asks her to stay Until sometime passes after her mother’s death. Salma agrees, who begins to receive mysterious messages, including a cassette tape of her favorite singer, Mohamed Mounir, and a picture of her with her childhood friends in the Shubra area, who separated from them when her mother married and went to live in the Maadi area.

Salma decides to visit her friends, thinking that they are behind these mysterious messages, so she goes to Shubra and meets her friends Duha (Mena Shalaby) and Yusriya (Hind Sabry). The two friends deny sending anonymous messages, but together they embark on a long and interesting journey in an attempt to find the sender of the letters. Meanwhile, Yusra’s relationship with her husband deteriorates and he divorces her, as well as Duha’s relationship with her fiancé, who decided to break off the engagement, and the friends begin to reproach Salma, who was the reason for what their lives reached after her recent appearance, but she assures them that it is not the real reason, and that she will travel abroad and will not be the reason In their troubles anymore, and they all decide to part. They each discover that while searching for the source of the letters, they find something more important, they find themselves, rearrange their papers, and restore their old friendship. In the end, Salma discovers that it was her stepfather who sent these messages in an attempt to get closer to her so that she would not leave the house, Salma’s betrothal to her neighbour, Yusra and Duha return to their first life after being completely convinced that life will not always be perfect.

Downtown Girls 2005

The movie “Downtown Girls” reviewed the friendship that developed on the subway between two poor girls who work in the downtown area, Yasmine (Mena Shalaby), who works in a hairdresser’s shop and lives on lies and illusions, and has multiple relationships with the opposite sex, and Joumana (Hind). Sabry), who works in a clothing store, loves songs and romance novels, and unlike her friend, she is very shy in dealing with the opposite sex.

The two girls meet Othman (Mohamed Najati) and Samir (Khaled Abu Al-Naga), and as usual, Yasmine lies to them and claims that she is Jumana and sings in the choir behind the singers, and that Jumana is Yasmine and works in designing clothes in the cinema, and the meetings are repeated between them and Yasmine falls in love with Samir, who is looking for a relationship Jada, unlike his reckless friend Othman, who prefers short relationships, and the girls continue to lie to them until the young people discover the truth by chance after a big dispute between Jumana and Yasmine, and soon the two friends reconcile, and Yasmine marries Samir, and she pledges with her friend to remain friends forever, and continues Their meetings are as usual in downtown cafes, and Joumana continues to search for love and a suitable husband, while Othman continues his reckless relationships.

Dearest Friends 2009

The movie “Dearest Friends” deals with the story of a group of school friends who separated due to their university studies, and each of them went on a different path due to their preoccupation with their lives and work. But they meet for the first time ten years ago, at the engagement of their girlfriend Angie (Lana Saeed), to solidify their friendship again, but after a lot of problems occurred between friends because of their different personalities from the past.

The film highlights an innocent love story that brought together since childhood Ali (Ahmed Flux) and Dina (Soma), where their feelings remained in their hearts despite their separation for many years. As well as the tense relationship between Marwa (Marwa Abdel Moneim) and her husband Muhammad (Ahmed Al-Saadani), where the wife misses the feelings of love that united them while studying, and discovers signs of marital infidelity and asks for divorce.

صورة 1

Pharaonic civilization … a treasure absent from the eyes of Egyptian cinema

A civilization that survived for more than 7 thousand years, and was a key factor in the development of human civilizations throughout the ages. It transferred to the following civilizations a lot of science and knowledge, so it was necessary for the ancient Pharaonic civilization to be an excellent material covered by films in Egyptian cinema. However, unfortunatey Egyptian cinema is very poor in the production of that fertile material. It has presented only a limited number of films that talked about the history of the pharaohs, unlike international cinema, which aroused its passion for the secrets of the pharaonic civilization for many years, during which it produced more than 500 films, many of which won important prizes. In this article, we take you on an interesting journey through time, to learn about the films that monitored the greatness of the ancient Pharaonic civilization in Egyptian cinema.

Bride of the Nile 1963

The movie “Bride of the Nile” drew attention to the issue of drilling in archaeological areas to prospect for oil, through the story of geological engineer Sami Fouad (Rushdi Abaza), who travels to Luxor to follow up the excavations, and Hamis, daughter of the sun god Aten (Lubna Abdel Aziz), appears to him. She tells him that she is the last bride of the Nile and begins to chase him and turn his life to hell, demanding to stop the excavations in this area because of the tombs of the Nile brides, and a love story arises between them and they marry. The film ends with the workers finding a coffin containing the mummy of the bride of the Nile, Hamis, so Sami holds a press conference announcing this important archaeological discovery, to meet a journalist very similar to Hamis, named Nadia Hamdi, and asks her to marry.

Romance in Karnak 1967

The film “Romance in Karnak” revolves in the world of show Biz, through the character of the show dancer Salah (Mahmoud Reda), who dreams of fame, success and access to Egyptian folklore for the world. The greatness of the pharaonic history, and that this place could be the reason for the success and fame of the band due to its wide popularity. The film showed the beauty of the city of Luxor and the great monuments that characterize it, by presenting a group of dance performances using several archaeological sites, as well as a review of Queen Hatshepsut.

The Mummy 1975

The film “The Mummy” discussed the issue of theft of Egyptian antiquities. It was inspired by a true story that took place in 1871, when the Abdel-Rasoul family managed to discover the cache of the mummies of Deir el-Bahari, which included a large group of the mummies of the great kings of the Pharaohs. The film presented the story of a tribe called the Harbats, She lives in Upper Egypt and is famous for stealing and selling pharaonic antiquities, but after the death of the sheikh of the tribe, his children decide to stop stealing antiquities, so one of them is killed by his uncle, while the second succeeds in escaping and informing the archaeological mission about the location of the cemetery.

The Migrant 1994

The film “The Migrant” is the only artwork presented by Egyptian cinema and takes place entirely in the time of the ancient Egyptians. It is a film adapted from the story of our master Yusuf, as it takes place during the reign of Amenhotep III, and tells the story of Ram (Khaled Al-Nabawi), who lives with his old father in a tribe A poor woman in the desert of Egypt, Ram asks his father to immigrate to Egypt to learn agriculture, so his seven brothers accompany him on his journey, and they try to get rid of him by throwing him on a ship heading to Egypt, where the ship owner finds him and decides to sell him, and after Ram arrives in Egypt he meets a captain The armies Amihar (Mahmoud Hamida) and his wife Simhit (Yousra), who fall in love with him, which makes him withdraw to live in the land that Amihar gave him at the borders of Egypt to cultivate, and there he meets the beautiful Egyptian girl Hatti (Hanan Turk) and falls in love with her, and succeeds in reclaiming the land When a famine occurs, Ram is able to save the people with the crop he planted in the desert, and his brothers arrive in Egypt to seek help, Ram recognizes them and reveals his personality to them, takes his girlfriend and returns to his family.

The Mummy’s escape 2002

The movie “The Mummy’s Escape” dealt with the story of a group of archaeologists, Dalia (Nelly Karim), Hassan (Majid Al-Masry) and Majid (Fathi Abdel-Wahab), who discover the mummy of Ramses IV in Luxor, and Hassan tries to seize it, and a Turkish businessman Assigning an international gang to steal the mummy, because he believes that it contains the elixir of youth and health. Indeed, the coffins are exchanged and the mummy is transported to Turkey, and the International Interpol police are able to arrest the gang, and the events end with the return of the mummy to Egypt.

2008 . Paper Code

The movie “Paper Code” presented the story of the young playboy Fayez (Ahmed Fahmy), who discovers with the help of his friends Ismail (Hisham Majid) and Badir (Sheko) that his grandfather, the archaeologist, left him before his death encrypted messages that include the way to access the maps of the treasures of the civilization of Jerusalem, which were drawn by the Jews. Fleeing to Egypt so that its landmarks are not lost, Fayez is chasing an Israeli gang looking for treasure, and they fabricate a murder for the three friends and promise them a large sum of money in addition to their acquittal of the murder charge in exchange for helping the gang find the maps, the friends agree and travel to Luxor on an interesting adventure to find On the maps hidden in the ancient Pharaonic temples, but when Fayez realizes the historical importance of those maps, he refuses to hand them over to the gang. The friends turn to the police to arrest the gang, and Fayez hands the maps to the Antiquities Department, and he and his friends are acquitted of the murder.

The Treasure 2017

The movie “The Treasure” takes place in 1975, where Hassan Bishr Al-Katatni (Ahmed Hatem) returns to his family home in Luxor, after studying Egyptology in Europe. Hassan wants to sell the palace and liquidate its property in Egypt and return to where he came from, especially after the death of his uncle , but the servant surprises him that his father left him a set of papyri and video tapes that he must watch before making the decision to sell, and his father tells him in the video about the treasure in this palace, and in order to find it, he must first read these papyri that tell interesting stories that take place In different eras starting with the Pharaonic era until the reign of King Farouk, passing through the Ottoman era.

Hassan begins reading in the papyrus of the Pharaonic era, which tells the story of Queen Hatshepsut (Hind Sabri) and the difficulties that the Pharaonic Queen faced before she took the reins of power, and the struggle for power between her and the priests of Amun Ra who were strongly opposed to her sitting on the throne of Egypt for fear of her extreme intelligence And its quest to control them and limit their powers.

صورة 1

On International Father’s Day… Learn about the most famous fathers in Egyptian cinema

Every year on the third Sunday in June, the world celebrates “International Father’s Day”, in recognition of the role of a father who has always symbolized strength and bond in his family. We note that there are works of art that talk about the father in Egyptian cinema, but they are very few compared to the works that talk about the mother.

This has raised the question of many viewers and critics as well, why is the celebration of the father absent from our eastern society, unlike western societies? Some attributed the reason to the fact that the mother’s role is the strongest in the Egyptian family and the eastern society in general, as she is the one who raises children, supervises their education and takes care of their health and their daily needs, in addition to managing the house and various family affairs, while the father’s role is often limited to work and saving money. In contrast to Western societies in which the father participates equally with the mother in raising and caring for the children.

But this does not prevent the existence of many films that talked about the role of the father in the life of the Egyptian family and its impact on the lives of his children, whether negatively or positively. To celebrate this day, we remember together a number of artists who played the role of the father in Egyptian cinema, in films that have been firmly established in the minds of the public for many years.

Hussein Riad

Hussein Riad appeared in the character of a kind and kind father in the movie “The Seven Girls”, where he played the role of a struggling father in his work, and he has 7 daughters who are responsible for them after the death of his wife, and each of them faces many problems, until they finally succeed in overcoming them together.

Hussein Riad also presented the role of the father in the movie “Red My Heart”, where he embodied the role of a poor father who seeks his livelihood and does not accept that his dignity or the dignity of his children be insulted. As well as in the movie “Baba Amin”, which tells the story of a family man who wants to get rich quickly to secure the future of his children, so he gives his friend all his savings to be partners in a business project.

Zaki Rostom

Zaki Rostom presented the role of the father in the movie “Me and my daughters”, whose story revolves around a widower who lives with his four daughters, but he narrows them down and prevents them from mixing or working, and when the father retires, one of the swindlers seizes his reward. The father is admitted to the hospital, and the girls are forced to go down to work to help their father and face life’s circumstances.

Zaki Rostom also presented the role of the father in the movie “My Children”, where he embodied the role of a husband whose wife dies, leaving him with three children.

Youssef Wehbe

Despite the brilliance of Youssef Wehbe in presenting serious characters, he presented the role of a light-hearted father in a comic way in the movie “Rumor of Love.” He is the helpless husband in front of his wife, but he takes a decisive position to determine the fate of his daughter, so he plots a cunning plan to marry her off his nephew. He also presented the father’s personality in a way that distinguished him from other artists through a number of works, including “Search for a Scandal”, “The Great Love” and “Dalaa Al Banat”.

Abdel Moneim Madbouly

Abdel Moneim Madbouly excelled in presenting the character of a kind, affectionate father who gives all his time to his home and his children in the movie “The Grandson”, which tells the story of a family with 7 children, and the film discusses the difficulties that the father and mother face in taking responsibility for their children. He also played the role of a conservative father who fears for his daughter from youth, so he instructs the son of one of his friends to watch over her when she goes on a trip with her friends in the movie “Fun Beach”.

He also presented the character of a strict and reserved father for his three daughters in the events of the movie “In the Summer, We Must Love”, where he goes with them to summer in the city of Alexandria, yet he forbids them to go into the sea and forces them to wear modest clothes, so the girls deceive him after he falls asleep, and they leave their room In sexy clothes to meet some young men.

Emad Hamdy

Emad Hamdi presented the role of the strong, domineering father in the movie “Sins”, whose story begins with two brothers whose father separates them in treatment, until one of them surprises that he is not his real son, but rather a bastard who adopted him from the shelter. He also presented the role of the father in one of the most famous films in the history of Egyptian cinema, the movie “My Father Over the Tree”, where he played the role of a father who is trying to save his son from getting lost in the world of nightclubs and accompanying dancers, and he falls like him in the same swamp, but the son succeeds in the end In rescuing his father from the clutches of a prostitute, they leave the nightclub and go home together.

Farid Shawqi

Farid Shawqi starred in the performance of the father’s character, as he presented it in a large number of works of art, including the movie “Ya Rab Walad”, in which he played the role of the father of three girls who marry and live with their husbands dependent on the father in the same house, and the father wishes to have a son to inherit his business. He is also the father who is surprised that his daughter is accused of a murder case, and then discovers that the real killer is her twin sister, who he thought had died while she was living with a gang and engaged in theft, as part of the events of the movie “Ah and Oh Sherbet”.

In the movie “A Man Who Lost His Mind”, Farid Shawqi played the role of a father who spends all his money on his multiple women’s relationships, which he justifies because his wife has grown old and has become neglectful and neglecting herself and only cares about her home and children, so his sons seek by all means to save the family from collapse.

Yehia Shaheen

Yahya Shaheen embodied one of the most famous roles in the history of Egyptian cinema, the character of “Si El-Sayed”, through the trilogy of films “Bain Al-Qasserine”, “Qasr Al-Shouq” and “Al-Sukaria”. his family. He also presented the role of the father in a number of films, including “Something of Fear” and “This Man I Love”.

Suleiman Najib

In most of his roles, Suleiman Najib embodied the character of a kind father who does not stand in front of his children’s wishes. In the movie “Ward El Gharam”, he is the father whose daughter refused to marry a rich man, so he spread rumors about her misbehavior, which prompted her father to file a case for honor refund to save his daughter’s reputation. He also presented the role of the rich aristocratic father in several films such as “Ghazal Al Banat”, “Miss Mama”, “The Heart has One Love” and “I am not an angel”.

Adel Emam

Adel Imam presented the character of the jealous father through the movie “A Suiter from a Security Agency”, where he dealt with an important issue, which is the father’s strong attachment to his only daughter, especially after the death of his wife, which affected her decision to marry, so he started rejecting everyone who proposed to her for fear that another man would take her From him, until his daughter put him in front of the fait accompli and married the person she loved.

He also presented the role of the father whose wife passed away and left him four children, and who treats them like a friend and not their father, through the movie “The Danish Experience”, but he reconsiders the way he deals with them, especially after he has to host a beautiful girl in his house, whom everyone falls in love with, While she prefers to bond with the father, which puts him in a confrontation with his children, and he is forced to choose between them and the girl.

Hassan Hosny

Hassan Hosni is considered one of the most famous artists who provided the role of father to the hero or heroine in many artistic works. He usually presents the role of a light-hearted father who is more of a friendship with his children than a father with his son or daughter. He is the father who succeeds in saving his daughter’s marriage from the collapse in the movie “My wife and my wife”, the crushed father in “Mido Problems” and “Zaki Chan”, the miserly father in “They made me a criminal” and the reckless father in “Romantic Beh”.

He also presented the same character in different details in several films, most notably “Oh, my aunt”, “Hamada plays”, “Abboud on the border”, “Kalm Mama”, “Habibi is sleeping”, “Eyal Habiba”, “Marriage cheating”, and others. One of the fun comedic roles.

صورة 1

From the Miracle Child to Souka the idiot…Where have the most famous children in Egyptian Cinema gone?!

 

The participation of children in films is a big risk, despite the overwhelming success achieved by their works, and their capture of the hearts and minds of the masses with their childish features and wit, but most of these children dim their star quickly, and most of them leave the artistic community for various reasons. Rarely do we find those who continue their film career and achieve stardom state.

We often wonder about the whereabouts of these children when we see the films, they participated in. Specially after long years pass without no appearance. Thus, we gathered for you a group of the most famous children to know about them and where did each of them go.

Fayrouz, Yasmine Film

Fayrouz is the most famous child in the history of Egyptian cinema, due to her multiplicity of talents such as singing, acting and dancing, which made the audience call her “The Miracle Child”. Fayrouz’s first appearance was in the movie “Yasmine” with the megastar Anwar Wagdy, when she was 7 years old. Because of her outstanding performance, directors were not satisfied with her participation in some scenes, but she also had starring roles alongside major actors.

Fayrouz presented distinguished films such as “Lady Fayrouz”, “Dahab” and “Asafir Al Jannah, (Birds of Heaven)”. Then she was absent from the world of cinema for 4 years, to return at the age of 16, to present the movie “Ismail Yassin Tarzan”, and then participated in her last movie, “Thinking about this who never thinks of me”, and then announced her retirement from acting. She devoted herself to her family life after her marriage to the artist Badr El-Din Jamjoom, and she remained far from the artistic community until her death in January 2016 at the age of 73.

Duha Amir “life or death”

Who doesn’t remember the child “Samira” who faced difficulties to bring medicine to her sick father in the movie “Life or Death” with Emad Hamdy

The gentle girl, Duha Amir, played a few roles in films during her childhood, the most famous of which are “Get My Heart Back”, “Raya and Sakina” and “Youth of today”. Her last work was the movie “The Wife Killing Association” in 1962, after which she decided to retire and stay away from the acting scene, and to wear hijab.

Ahmed Farhat. “The Secret Cap of Concealment”

The beginning of the child Ahmed Farhat’s acting career was when he reached the age of 8 years, through the movie “Criminal on Vacation”, but his fame came from the movie “The Secret of the Cap of Concealment” with Abdel Moneim Ibrahim. The audience called him “The Eloquent of Egyptian Cinema” and “The Miracle Child” after he starred in many works of art with the mega stars.

Among his most famous films are “Love Rumor”, “The Deity of the Masses” and “Ismail Yassin in Prison”. Ahmed Farhat retired from acting and specialized in the field of telecommunications, and worked as a communications engineer in the presidential palace, during the era of former President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak.

Iman Zulfikar..Angel and Satan

Do you remember the abducted child “Sawsan” in the movie “Angel and Satan” by Rushdi Abaza, and the author of the famous phrase “Uncle Ezzat”? She is the child Iman Zulficar, who some may not know is the daughter of Maryam Fakhreddine, the film’s heroine, and her father is Mahmoud Zulficar, the film’s director, who chose her for this role because of her aristocratic features.

After that, Iman Zulficar presented some films, but they were not as strong, including “A Palace in the Air”, “Fat Cats” and “The Thief of Love”, and decided to stay away from acting after her last films, “How Sad You Are, Love” in 1980. She got married at a young age, she was 16 years old at the time.

Ikram Ezzo… the Zizi family

We remember, of course, the funny girl in the movie “Zizi’s Family”, who was nicknamed “The Witty Girl of Egyptian Cinema” because of her talkativeness and wit. She started her film career when she was less than 3 years old, in the movie “For My Love” with singer Farid Al-Atrash. Many may not know that Ikram Ezzo played the role of the artist’s son, Shadia, in her famous song “Seed Al Habayeb”, as part of the events of the movie “The Unknown Woman”.

Then she appeared with the star Ismail Yassin, in the movie “The Magical Lantern”. She acted in 23 films, most notably “The Seven Girls”, “The Thief and the Dogs” and “This Man I Love”. She retired to join the Ballet Institute, then married a paediatrician and travelled with him to the UAE, where she lived until her death in June 2001.

Dina Abdullah…”the grandson”

Dina Abdullah was famous for presenting the character of the child “Sawsan” in the movie “The Grandson” with Abdel Moneim Madbouly and Karima Mokhtar. After that, she participated in a number of films during her childhood, including the films “Amira Hobi Ana”, “The Most Difficult Passage”, “Antar, the Desert Knight” and “Forever”. She also participated in a number of TV series, including “A Bride Wanted”, “Layali Al Helmeya” and “Raafat Al-Hagan”.

Dina Abdullah went to work in media after obtaining her PHD degree, and presented a number of social programs. The last work in which she participated in the series “Layali Helmiya 6” in 2016.

Mervat Al-Aydi..the grandson

Mervat Al-Aydi also participated in the movie “The Grandson”, as the child “Hala”, who was 5 years old. She also presented many films in childhood, where she participated in 6 films, including “Life has passed”, “Watch what Sokkar is doing”, and “A Forest of Legs”. Her last acting role was her only series “Anything but the Sad Tear”.

After that, Mervat Al-Aydi decided to retire early at the age of 12, due to the pressure and exhaustion she was exposed to while trying to balance her studies with acting. She now dedicates herself to taking care of her family.

Hadeel Khairallah… the goblins

We cannot forget “Baliyah”, the funny 6-year-old girl, who hijacked the heart of the artist Amr Diab in the movie “The Goblins”, and also captured the hearts of the audience.

Hadeel Khairallah participated in a limited number of films, including “The Criminal”, “Why life”, “The Man and the Thief”, and appeared in the second part of the series “Nights of the Dream”. Hadeel’s film career also included appearing in advertisements. After that, she devoted herself to studying, graduating from the Department of Economics at the American University.

Maha Ammar..why did you make me love you

The girl Maha Ammar appeared for the first time in 2000, in the movie “Why Did I Ever Love You” with Mona Zaki and Karim Abdel Aziz. After that, she presented a few films, including “The Ladder and the Serpent”, “Haramiya in KG2” and “My Aunt France”. She also presented a TV show called “Stars in KG2”. Her last role was in the series “After Parting” in 2008.

With her wit, she managed to capture the audience’s heart, and critics expected her to be one of the comedy stars in her youth. However, Maha Ammar was satisfied with what she presented, and decided to retire from art to devote herself to studying film directing, and she currently lives in Germany.

Sarah Abdel Qader..Abu Ali

She was able to achieve great fame in the movie “Abu Ali”, although she appeared in a scene that did not exceed one minute with the star Karim Abdel Aziz. Who among us does not remember the little girl “Suka” with her shaggy hair and shabby clothes, and the famous phrase “This is how I like it”, which has been circulated in the public’s tongue to this day?

Actress Sarah Abdel Qader did not participate in any other artistic works after the movie “Abu Ali”, which was shown 16 years ago, due to the death of the casting director who used to nominate for films. Sarah stopped acting at the age of 8, and went to complete her studies in the field of tourism and hotels, and after graduating, she worked as a production supervisor in one of the major restaurants. She previously expressed her strong desire to return to acting.

Abdullah Ramadan… black honey

The audience knew him through the character of the smart child “Hamasa”, who caught the eye with his beautiful childish features and wit in the movie “Black Honey”, with the star Ahmed Helmy.

Abdullah Ramadan did not provide only that only film 11 years ago, but he also appeared in the last three parts of the series ” Wanis Family”, and then completely disappeared from the art scene. Abdullah confirmed that he wants to return to the field of acting as soon as possible, but he is currently devoting himself to his studies at the secondary level.

10- القرن الحادي والعشرين

From the time of Ancient Egyptians until modern age. The evolution of the Egyptian Theatre

The Egyptian theater is always on the throne of theaters in the Arab world. It had a great position even compared to international theaters, and what many might be unaware of is that the Egyptian theater did not start in the last century. It rather went through a long history of continuous evolution, which spanned long ages that started from the Pharaonic era passing through the Greeks, the Mamluks in addition to the French campaign and the era of Khedive Ismail.

This long history contributed greatly to the flourishing of the idea of Egyptian theater, to suit the cultural and technological development that took place after that in the modern era. Therefore, in the following article, we give you a glimpse of the history of the Egyptian theater from its inception, evolution, and up to its place in the modern era.

Ancient Egypt

In this ancient era, artistic scenes were related to religious rituals. They were shown only in front of kings and princes. The priests of Amun performed poetic plays on certain occasions. Perhaps the most famous literary story presented on the Pharaonic theater is the story of “Isis and Osiris”, which was found in papyri containing theatrical texts from 40 scenes, which mix poetry and music.

The Greco-Roman era

The kings of this era took advantage of the foundation stone laid by the ancient Egyptian for theater. They established the first Greek theater in the city of Alexandria, which began in the palaces of kings and princes. There they plays from the Greek culture were performed. Then a well-known traditional theater was built in the popular commercial squares. One of the most important of those theaters was the great impact of the Roman theater in Alexandria, which was discovered in 1964.

But with the introduction of the Christian religion to the Roman Empire, Christians were keen to eliminate those theaters, due to the ecclesiastical prohibition of this art, especially since they were performing pagan theatrical performances, which made the art of theater disappear in Egypt for a long time.

Arabs and the Mamluk era

The Arabs also did not know the theater at the beginning of the Arab Islamic civilization, despite the mixing of Arabs with many and varied civilizations. They then became open to the various arts that these civilizations offered, but theater was not an original part of the Arab culture that was more interested in poetry and literature.

With the entry of the Mamelukes to Egypt in the 13th century, shadow fantasy theater was common, which is a type of art that relies on a white screen.  Someone moves the characters behind them to reveal their shadow to the people, introducing a meaningful short story using music and poetry, an art that later developed for puppet shows. The most famous plays that was presented in the shadow theater was “The Spectrum of Imagination,” by Ibn Daniel Al-Kahhal.

French Invasion

With the entry of the French invasion to Egypt in 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte established a comedy theater troupe called “The Comedian Frances”, with the aim of entertaining his soldiers, who used to meet every 10 days in the theater built by Napoleon in the Azbakeya region, to attend a comedy theatrical performance that lasts for 4 continuous hours.

However, the art of comedy theater disappeared again after the exit of the Finnish campaign from Egypt in 1801. It did not appear again until many decades later.

The era of Khedive Ismail

In 1869, Khedive Ismail established the opera house in Ataba Square, with the aim of presenting operatic performances to the kings and princes who came to attend the opening ceremony of the Suez Canal. The Khedive wanted to dazzle them with an Egyptian opera for the first time, as this art was not known at that time in Egypt.

The Khedive asked the Italian musician Verdi to write an opera on the Egyptian historical, so he composed “Aida Opera,” which was not completed in time, so the Khedive was forced to present “Opéra Rigoletto,” and then “Aida Opera” was presented after that.

Since opera performances were presented at this time in the Italian language, which was not widespread in Egypt, the opera house was closed for a very long time until “Aida Opera” was translated into Arabic and presented to the Egyptians.

During that period, the Khedive established another theater in Azbakeya Park, which was considered the first national theater, in which the plays of the Abu Khalil Qabbani troupe were performed in 1885, and the Sheikh Salama Hegazy troupe in 1905.

Jacob Sanoa

Egypt knew the theater in its modern form in 1876, thanks to the artist Yaqoub Sanu’a, who translated a lot of international literature, established the first Arab theater in Egypt, and presented 160 theatrical performances on its stage within two years, with the help of Salim Al-Naqqq and Maroon Al-Naqqq theatrical troupe.

Yaqoub Sanaa performed many plays in front of Khedive Ismail in Qasr al-Nil, including the modern girl, Ghandourah Misr, and Al-Dharatain, which he admired. Therefore, the Khedive named “Molly of Egypt” to Yaqoub Sanaa, due to the similarity of works with what the French playwright “Moliere” presented .

Yacoub Sanaa wanted to reform the political situation in Egypt, so he performed bold plays that mocked the princes and nobles, criticizing the government and the Khedive Ismail, and the most famous of those plays was “The Homeland and Freedom”, which angered the ruling class, so he ordered the Khedive to close the theater.

Abu Khalil Al Qabani

The Egyptian theater witnessed a great development at the end of the nineteenth century, specifically in 1888, at the hands of Ahmed Abu Khalil al-Qabbani, who is considered the pioneer of Arab theater and lyrical theater, as he left the idea of translation and quoting from international novels, and began to compose theater novels in the Arabic language.

He performed with his band many important plays that influenced the history of Egyptian theater, such as Antara bin Shaddad, Harun al-Rashid, Prince Mahmoud, son of Shah al-Ajam, and others.

20th century

Egypt knew a new type of theatrical art at the beginning of the twentieth century, which is the musical theater, or the so-called “operetta”. It was based on the musical performances of which Salama Hegazy and Sayed Darwish were famous.

At this time, a new pioneer of theater pioneers appeared on the scene. The great artist Youssef Wahbi, who was interested in the dramatic theater founded by the artist George Abyad, and made many successful plays in Egypt and the Arab countries.

The competition increased after the emergence of comedy theater and its pioneers such as Naguib al-Rihani and Ali Al-Kassar, who were keen to present a sophisticated and purposeful comedy affecting the Egyptian citizen. This increased the calls for the establishment of an Egyptian national theater away from international literature and translated plays, so the beginning of the national theater was in 1921.

With time, poetic theater began to impose itself on the scene, after writers and poets such as Ahmed Shawqi turned to theatrical authorship, and he presented important plays such as Majnun Lili, the death of Cleopatra and others. As well as the writer Tawfiq al-Hakim in plays such as The People of the Cave and Isis.

With the entry of the middle of the twentieth century, specifically in the sixties, the state began to be interested in art and the emergence of the national theater, so many large theater troupes appeared, such as the National Theater Company and the Modern Egyptian Theater Troupe, and Egypt at that time witnessed the emergence of a large group of great authors such as Youssef Idris, Saad Eddin Wahba. Salah Abdel-Sabour, Ali Salem, and others. Including directors Jalal Al Sharqawi, Samir Al Asfouri, and Karam Mutawa.

Twenty first century

The nineties of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century witnessed the prevalence of the private sector on theater. The producers were interested in material gain rather than presenting a sophisticated and purposeful art, so a kind of theatrical performances called “the knight’s comedy” appeared. It depended on the situation comedy. Its slogan is laughter for laughter only. What was initially acceptable as a different kind of theater.

But with the increase in the domination of producers and businessmen over the private theater, which targeted certain classes of the people with high economic income, the decline of government theaters, or the theaters of the folk people as they came to be called, expectations increased that the art of theater would finally disappear from Egypt. Particularly, with the rapid technological development. Then, the emergence of electronic platforms have captured the interest of Egyptians more than theater and perhaps cinema as well.

1-المقدمة

Between the Authenticity of the Past, Criticism of the Present and Hopes of the Future… This is How Egyptian Cinema Originated.

Over a century has passed since the first film debut in Egypt. Thousands of memorable films were presented during those years, which formed a large part of the cinematic history of “East Hollywood”, and some of them even come on top of the list of the 100 best Arab films. Before becoming in tatters, after contracting films have become the hallmark of cinema lately.

Egyptian Cinema’s Position in the World

You might be surprised if you knew that Egypt’s relationship with cinema began at the same time it did in Europe and the whole world. Whereas, the first commercial cinematic show in the world was in December 1895 in Paris, and it was a silent film by the “Lumiere” brothers. A month later, the first cinema screening in Egypt was presented in Alexandria in January 1896, then followed by the first cinema screening in Cairo in the same month of the same year, and then the third cinematic show in Port Said in 1898.

Documentary Film Phase

Egyptian cinema did not differ in its early years from international cinema, which used to present documentaries, which are scenes that display animated pictures related to a specific topic, but without a narrative context. That is why the Lumiere brothers’ first mission in Egypt on March 10, 1897, filmed 35 films about daily life in Alexandria and Cairo. Likewise, the second “Lumiere” mission in 1906, which monitored pictures of natural places in Cairo, Luxor and Aswan.

The real beginning of Egyptian cinema came on June 20, 1907, after “Aziz Benderley” and “Umberto Malavas” succeeded in presenting the first integrated Egyptian cinematic experience, by filming a silent documentary film about the visit of Khedive Abbas Helmy II to the Morsi Abu Abbas Institute in Alexandria.

Feature Film and Silent Cinema Phase

The first beginnings of a feature-length fictional cinema came in May 1927, with the film “A Kiss in the Desert”, followed by “Layla” in November of the same year. Also, during that period, director Mohamed Karim presented the first fictional film adapted from a literary work, the film “Zainab”, by Mohamed Hassanein Heikal, which was produced by the artist Youssef Wahbi. Due to the success of the film shown in 1930, it was remade in 1952 with talking technology. 

Sound Cinema Phase

Egyptian cinema entered a new phase, which was the stage of Sound Cinema in March 1932, with the movie “Awlad al-Zawat” starring Youssef Wahbi and Amina Rizk.

Then came the movie “Onshodat al-Fouad”, which contributed greatly to the growth of the cinema audience, given that it was the first musical film in the history of Egyptian cinema, as it witnessed the appearance of the first Egyptian singer called Nadera, while the first singer to appear in the cinema was Mohamed Abdel Wahab in a movie “Alwarda Albaydhaa”.

The Thirties and Forties

This phase witnessed a new shift in the history of Egyptian cinema, as “Studio Misr” was established in 1935, and then “Studio Al-Nahhas” in 1946, and after World War II, cinematic production of films in Egypt increased from 16 films in 1944 to 67 films in 1946.

Attempts were made to color parts of the films, including coloring the song “The Day of the Two” from the movie “I am not an angel” by the artist Mohamed Abdel-Wahab, in 1946. The phenomenon of female directing also began through the work of female directors such as Aziza Amir in the film “My Blasphemy”, and Fatima Rushdie in “Marriage”, joyfully kept in “victims.”

Egyptian cinema during the thirties and forties witnessed a great diversity of subjects. Various types of films appeared, including the historical film, such as “Shajarat al-Durr”, or science fiction such as “Oyoun Sahera”, or comedy such as “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.”

The Fifties and Sixties Phase

This phase witnessed the production of the first full-fledged Egyptian film in natural colors, which is “Baba Aris” starring Naima Akef, Camelia and Shukri Sarhan. In 1951, artist Mohamed Fawzy experimented with coloring two of his films, “Alhob Fi Khatar” and “Nihayat Qisa”.

The movie “Dalilah” was also produced in the “Scoop” color scheme, in 1956, starring Shadia and Abdel Halim Hafez. After that, color films were produced, but in a limited way.

The 1960s witnessed the nationalization of the cinema industry in Egypt, when the “General Film Organization for the Production of Feature Narrative Films” was established, which follows the public sector in Egypt, which led to a decrease in the average number of films from 60 to 40 films per year.

The Seventies and Eighties

The “General Film Corporation” was liquidated in 1971, and a public authority was established that included cinema, theater and music together, which only funded the private sector. After the October 1973 war, color shooting prevailed in most films. In 1975 the first film dealing with the policy of openness was produced. It was “On Whom We Shot”, starring Souad Hosni, Mahmoud Yassin and Izzat Al-Alayli.

In the early 1980s, the term “Realism Stream” appeared, and they are a group of young directors who took it upon themselves to make serious cinematic films, including Atef Al-Tayeb, Raafat Al-Mihi, Khairy Bishara and Muhammad Khan. This brings the number of films produced in 1984 to 63.

As for the contracting films, they appeared in the mid-eighties. They are films that were produced with few budgets and weak capabilities, with the aim of exporting them to the Gulf countries, where the number of films in 1986 reached 95 films.

The nineties and the 2000s

With the beginning of the nineties, and especially after the Gulf War, the contracting films declined dramatically, and a new group of directors who had overcome the prevailing ideas in cinema at this time appeared, including Radwan Al-Kashef, Osama Fawzi and Saeed Hamed. Unfortunately, the annual film production rate has decreased.

Then a new wave of comedy films appeared, after “Ismailia Rayeh Gay”, which revived the film industry in Egypt. After comedy dominated most of the cinematic production, new types of action and action films appeared, as well as romantic films.

Women had a big share in the cinematic scene at that period, where many actresses starred in starring roles, such as “Ahla Alawkat‎.”, “Hob ElBanat”, “Ihki Ya Shahrazad” and “678”, and other films that have achieved great success.

If we look at the situation during that period, we will notice the decline of the “Hero’s Friend” phenomenon, which cinematic films initially relied on, and the term “Collective Leading Roles” appeared, which are huge films that include a group of great stars, such as “Sahar Al Layali” and “The Yacoubian Building” and “Baby Doll Night”.

2010 – 2020 Phase

This period witnessed, along with the continuation of action and comedy films, the emergence of a new type of “Popular Films”, which are interested in discussing the life and problems of the poor class, such as “Abdo Muta”, “When Maysara” and “Wlad Rizk”. These types of films had negative effects on Egyptian society, and they received a lot of criticism because of their containment of vulgar words and obscene words, in addition to a lot of disruptive scenes and erotic dances.

With the beginning of 2021, the film industry is facing a state of anticipation, as the audience hopes for a new season of cinematic production that brings with it the richness and diversity of the films produced in terms of quality rather than quantity.

1- المقدمة

How did women contribute to the “Cinema of Women” was it “Support or Marginalization”?

Some might get baffled when they hear the term “Cinema of Women”, as a question arises in their minds: Are they films that deal with women’s issues and problems, or the films that women make to present their opinions and ideas on general issues and topics.

When deliberating Egyptian cinema, you think at first glance that it is based largely on the roles of men, who are the first drivers of events, while women roles seem to be marginalized weak and negative most of the time. However, if you delve into the history of the film industry, you can find the names of many women who played major roles in the founding of Egyptian cinema. Yet, unfortunately with the passage of time their role was marginalized in favor of men, yet some of them remained in desperate attempts to continue improving the image of women in cinema and addressing their issues.

Aziza Amir … the producer of the first Egyptian film

One of the most prominent names is Aziza Amir, who established “Studio Heliopolis” and presented the first Egyptian film in history, in 1927, entitled “Layla”, which she wrote its script herself in addition to directing and producing it.

This was not all what Aziza Amir did. Although, she only produced the movie “Atonement for Your Sin” in 1933, she did not stop writing, producing and acting for 25 years.

In addition to her role as a pioneer in Egyptian cinema, Aziza Amir helped other women to enter this field. At a time when the work of women in cinema was something that was scoffed at by society, considering it a bold act that did not fit with the customs and traditions of the Egyptian family.

She was followed in her footsteps by Asia Dagher, who became an incomparable influence in the film industry, after establishing the film production company “Lotus” that continued in business for half a century.

We cannot overlook other influential female characters such as Bahija Hafez, Fatima Rushdie, and Mary Queenie, who each presented a group of films that had a positive social goal.

Faten Hamama, advocate for women’s rights

For a long time, the image of women in cinema receded either in the role of the maid, the dancer, or in the role of the mother and the kind girl who lives a love story with the hero.

However, that image morphed in the fifties and sixties, and the prominent actress Faten Hamama played a role in improving the image of women in cinema, as she contributed to raising important issues related to women in many of her films, such as discussing women employment in “Advocate Fatima” in 1952, and crimes of honour in “Doaa Karawan” in 1959. The participation of women in political life in “The Open Door” in 1963. The issue of the mother who bears the burdens of the family alone in “The M Empire”.

During that period, a group of actresses who made films of interest to Egyptian women appeared, such as Magda in “Where did my life go” and “Adolescent Girls”, Nadia Lotfi in “The Black Glasses” and “For Men Only”, Shadia in “Some Fear” and “My wife is the boss.”, last but not least Lubna Abdel Aziz in “Al-Ibeeb” and “I Am Free”.

Inas El-Deghidi: “A woman that did not do herself justice”

During the eighties, women’s films were limited to presenting the problems and concerns of the middle and rich class, such as “Hind and Camelia’s Dreams”, “The Virgin and White Hair”, “The Apartment is the Wife’s Right” and “The Wife of an Important Man”. The situation becomes even worse in the entrepreneurship films of the 1990s, which have become commercial films that superficially display the role of women and distance themselves from social issues of concern to women.

We find Inas El-Deghidi with her films that offend women and detract from their role in life, and despite Inas El-Deghidi’s keenness at the beginning of her film career to present pro-women works, to the point of considering changing some laws and customs in the country, as happened with the movie “Sorry, O Law.” Who discussed honor crimes and their judicial rulings that provide for a lenient ruling in cases of men killing their wives in case they are caught red-handed with adultery. While the verdict with severe penalties that may reach the death penalty if the perpetrator of the murder is the wife who saw her husband in the act.

However, most of Inas El Deghidi’s films were limited to featuring women in the roles of seduction, such as “Cheap Meat”, “Dantella” and “The Red Rose”, as well as teenage films such as “Disco” and “Teen Diaries”.

We cannot ignore the random films, which completely distorted the role of women, by showing distorted relations between men and women, which appeared as if their poverty, need for money or safety always pushed them to give up their honor and principles, such as the films “Heen Maysra”, “When life gets better” and “Halawet Rouh”.

Did modern cinema succeed in achieving justice for women?

Despite the different opinions about the concept of “women’s cinema”, we can agree that the discussion of women’s issues and their role in society did not develop with the passage of years. On the contrary, it became worse and shallow, of course with some exceptions from time to time. Women such as “678”, “Taymour and Shafiqa” and “Ihki Ya Shahrazad” performed well at the box office, while other films such as “Asmaa”, “Two Girls from Egypt” and “The Factory Girl” had little success.

 Despite these desperate attempts by modern filmmakers to do justice to women, they did not produce the results expected of them, and we still have long strides to go so that we can overcome the distorted image that the image of women has become in Egyptian cinema during the past decades.

صورة 1 المقدمة

Cinema magazines, a history full of obstacles and interruptions

The film industry appeared in an early stage in Egypt, starting in 1907. It witnessed continuous development in various aspects. However, Egypt did not encounter a lot of success in the industry of cinematic magazines that kept pace with cinema production in terms of constructive criticism, meaningful artistic discussions, documentation of films and their stages of development. They did not even offer support for art creators by commemorating their lives and works.

At one point, Egyptian filmmakers realized the importance of the role played by film magazines. Some attempts were made to introduce this type of press releases. The scene was topped sporadically by the appearance of several magazines at different times in the history of the Egyptian cinema industry. However, these attempts did not last long and witnessed obstacles and many have failed.

Despite the discontinuation of most of these attempts. Cinema magazines proved to have a significant role in the formation of Cinema industry in Egypt. Could the reason for the cessation of such releases be financial? Or were there any other hindrances that prevented the continuation of such magazines?

First attempts to launch a film magazine

The “motion feature” magazine, published by Muhammad Tewfik in 1923, was the first specialized cinematic magazine. It was based mainly on international films. It published stories of movie stars lives and technical news translated from foreign magazines. It consisted of 24 pages, each page of two columns, each issue was sold by 10 Milliemes.

Three years later, “Kawakib Al-Cinema” magazine, published by the film critic, historian and one of the pioneers of cinema journalism, Mr. Hassan Jumaa, was published in 1924. It consisted of 16 pages, and 50 copies were printed. Other magazines followed, such as “The World of Cinema”, “The Bride”, and “The Art of Cinema”.

Whereas 1932 witnessed the publication of a new film magazine, Al-Kawakeb, which was published by Dar Al-Hilal, and it is considered the most famous film magazine to this date.

New prominent and effective experiences

The important and influential experience of the Ministry of Culture in issuing the magazine “Cinema and Theater” should not be overlooked.  The editor-in-chief was the great writer Youssef El Sebaei, followed by the experienced film critic and historian Samir Farid with the magazine “Cinema and Arts” in 1977, of which only 35 issues were released.

Perhaps the most prominent experience in this field is represented in “The Seventh Art”, magazine published by the artist Mahmoud Hamida in 1997. It is rather the first Arab cinema publication specialized in the cinema industry in the Middle East. It used to shed light on Arab and foreign cinematic issues, films and figures, 44 issues of that magazine were issued. Until it stopped in 2001, for financial reasons, its issues maintained their value, as scholars considered them a historical reference for various local and international films.

Film magazines that appeared after 2000, such as “Online Cinema”, which was published in 2002 and lasted for only two years, and “Good News Cinema”, which lasted from 2003 to 2009, tried to fill the great void in this industry. However, they parted from the serious content and artistic criticism, and focused more on audience interests, from light news and trivia about celebrities and movies.

Yet, all of these magazines stopped due to financial crises, which caused them to become unable to cover production costs and pay the wages of their workers.

Lately, some new attempts to issue film magazines seemed that would last for a period of time, but these attempts were not sufficiently widespread among the public. Thus, the magazine “Al-Film” came up in 2014, which is a magazine issued by the Al-Nahda Scientific and Cultural Association “Cairo Jesuit”, and covers cinematic culture all-over the world.

The magazine “Tele Cinema”, a monthly cinema magazine published by the Syndicate of Cinematographic Professions in 2018. It was featured that it was not limited to filmmakers only, as was expected from a magazine issued by the Cinema Syndicate, but also focused its attention on the audience. It was not limited to Egyptian cinema, but rather grew to include Arab and international cinema.

The role of the Internet in the faltering cinema press

Despite Egypt’s long cinematic history, and our pride in being a pioneer in the film industry for more than a century. It is unfortunate that we do not always have an established magazine specialized in cinema affairs. So far, the arena has not witnessed the issuance of a stable and consistent cinema magazine. The situation has become more difficult in recent years, especially after the spread of press websites and social networking sites, which caused a major change in the public’s relationship with cinema.

So each one of these magazines became in the position of the film critic, and it became customary for each of them to freely present their personal opinions. In addition to surveying and reading the opinions of others easily, it is no longer logical to wait for the issuance of a monthly or even weekly magazine to find out about cinema, art and celebrities news, while it can easily be known within seconds of surfing the Internet.

Regardless of paying for Art magazine that are available completely free. All these reasons were gathered to make the issuance of an Arab Cinema Magazine that showcase the developments of cinema in Egypt and the world, has become a far-fetched dream. As if the Hollywood of the East was doomed to stay without prints specialized in Cinema affairs.

صورة 1 المقدمة

Schizophrenia, double personality disorder and masochism … films that embodied mental illnesses in Egyptian cinema

Egyptian filmmakers are keen to discuss various issues and topics, and to present various plots in their films. Among those topics are the mentally ill and the various psychological diagnoses that accompany them.

Although society has for many years been dealing with mental patients in a bad way due to ignorance of the nature of these diseases and their symptoms, which are usually unclear or ambiguous, and often cause embarrassing situations, cinema has played an important role as a mediator between the psychiatric patient and the Egyptian society.

Together, we showcase some of the mental illnesses discussed by Egyptian Cinema in its movies, in comedy films sometimes and in a serious more realistic way in others.

Inferiority complex … Bab al-Hadid 1958

The most famous film by director Youssef Shaheen is one of the first Egyptian films to discuss the idea of ​​a psychopath. The film revolves around the character of Qinawy “Youssef Shaheen”. He is a poor newspaper seller who loves Hanuma “Hind Rostom”. He suffers from inferiority complex, which is the complex of feeling inferior or physical, psychological and social impotence or lack of self-esteem, in addition to emotional deprivation and sexual oppression. This negatively affected him and made him an unstable character, and led him to the point of trying to kill his beloved girl because of her getting in a relationship with another person.

PTSD … The Last Night 1964

The film discusses post-traumatic amnesia disorder, where the heroine Nadia Burhan Sadiq “Faten Hamama” wakes up to find that she lived for 15 years in the character of her sister Fawzia, who died in a visit to her family’s home, which was bombed during one of the war raids. Her husband then took advantage of the amnesia case Nadia, his sister-in-law suffers from and deluded her that she is his wife, Fawzia, so that his daughter does not become an orphan without a mother. After her memory returned, the husband made her think she is insane so that what he had done would not be revealed.

Blind Sanctification or Fetish … A Pursuit of Love, 1968

The film discusses in a comic fashion the disorder of blind sanctification of a certain idea, or what is known as fetish, which is a famous psychological deviation based on satisfying sexual desire by being attracted to a certain thing. We find Munir “Fouad Al Mohandes” who falls in love with women through their feet and shoes in what is known as foot fetish.

Double personality … Well of deprivation, 1969

The film presented a complex or a psychological disorder, where the heroine “Soad Hosni” suffers from double personality. We find her in the character of Nahed, the gentle girl in the morning, and Mervat the play girl at night. A psychiatrist treats her and discovers that her illness is the result of a psychological complex from childhood, caused by her father’s cruelty to her mother when he discovered her betrayal to him.

Oedipus complex … the women serial killer 1970

The cinema presented again the image of the psychopath in a comic way, so we find the artist “Hassan Zayed”, who introduced the character of the serial killer Mimi, who was very attached to his mother, to end up with him as a killer who chooses his female victims and keeps their bodies in casts of wax, so that he does not lose them like he lost his mother. He is afflicted with what is known as the Oedipus complex, which is a psychological complex of a male who loves his mother in an abnormal way and is very attached to her and is jealous of her.

Oedipus Complex, Fetish, and Paedophilia complex … The Mirage 1970

The film presented a variety of mental illnesses that most of the protagonists suffered from. We find Ahmed Akef “Nour El-Sherif” who suffers from the Oedipus complex, where his relationship with his mother and his love for her dominated his relationship with his wife. He also suffers from fetishism, so he feels sexual excitement only when he sees the scarf that the maid wears on her head, due to being harassed in his childhood by the maid, who in turn suffered from a psychological disorder called paedophilia, which is the desire of having sex with children.

Picture 4 The Choice

Double Personality … The Choice 1970

Youssef Shaheen deals with mental illness for the second time in this film, through the hero “Izzat Al-Alaili”, introducing the character “Syed” who killed his twin brother, “Mahmoud”, and lives in duality in character, looking for happiness, so he goes to his wife “Sherifa” with his main character, and he goes to his mistress “Bahia” as his twin brother.

Masochism … Shafiqa and Mitwalli 1979

The film presented a different and not widespread type of psychological disorders called masochism, which is the enjoyment and pleasure of feeling physical and psychological pain during sexual intercourse. Within one of the scenes of the film, we find Yusri Pasha “Jamil Ratib”, who flogs workers and peasants, asks Shafika “Suad Hosni” to hit him with a flog inside the bedroom, until he reaches the heights of orgasm.

Phobia … watch out for your mind 1985

The film presented the character of Salwa “Sherihan”, a psychopath who suffers from social phobia, as she panics when people approach her, especially men, thinking that they want to harass her. Psychiatrist Wael “Adel Imam” meets her inside the mental ward. He understands the nature of her illness and makes sure that she is not crazy, but rather suffers from a mental illness. He assists in removing her from the hospital and treating her, especially after he knows her harsh experience with her stepfather who tried to rape her.

Paranoia … The Wife of an Important Man 1987

The film presented the character of Officer Hisham “Ahmed Zaki”, who is passionate about power and oppression. He practices them even on his gentle wife, Mona “Mervat Amin”. After his dismissal from service, he suffers from paranoia, as he believes that he still has power and influence, and that others should keep showing respect and appreciation for him based on this. His mental illness progressed to the point of killing his father-in-law and committing suicide.

Homosexuality … The Yacoubian Building, 2006

The film presented a group of different stories, including the story of the great journalist Hatem Rashid “Khaled Al-Sawy”, who suffers from sexual orientation disorders as a result of being raped by a servant during his childhood, which in spite of his high social status prompts him to practice homosexuality, with the poor young man Abd Rabbo Basem. Samra “.

Kleptomania … Doctor Omar’s gang 2007

Once again, the film presents mental illness in a comic form, through the psychiatrist Omar “Mustafa Qamar”, who treats his patients with modern treatment methods that he studied abroad. We find him helping Reem “Yasmine Abdel Aziz”, the wealthy girl who suffers from kleptomania or obsessive theft, because her parents are busy and have no time for her. The film also deals with some other psychological diseases, such as phobia of high places, and phobia of fires.

Autism … Turbine 2007

The film presents the story of a young man named Mohsen “Ahmed Rizk”, who suffers from autism, a condition associated with brain development that affects a person’s ability to communicate with others. Mohsen refuses to communicate with his older brother Karim “Sherif Mounir”, who initially tried to exploit his brother’s illness to seize his inheritance. Over time, Karim manages to gain Mohsen’s trust and draw close to him.

Schizophrenia and paranoia … Sorry for the inconvenience, 2008

This movie is one of the best films that presented mental illness in modern cinema. It was able to dive into the depths of the most serious psychological disorders, through the character of the aeronautical engineer Hassan Salah El-Din Zidan “Ahmed Helmy”, who suffers from schizophrenia and paranoia. As a result, he suffers from auditory and visual hallucinations, so he imagines untrue things happening, addresses the dead, thinking they are alive, as well as inventing personalities and situations that do not exist. The hero also suffers from paranoia, as he believes in his exposure to conspiracy and contempt from those around him. All this because of a great trauma that he could not overcome after the death of his father.

Borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder and others … Blue Elephant 2014-2019

The film in its two parts deals with mental illness in a way that some critics and psychiatrists objected, as he attributed some injuries and psychological states to metaphysical reasons such as black magic, touching the jinn, or other reasons such as drug addiction. However, the hero of the film, Dr. Yahya “Karim Abdel Aziz,” a psychiatrist at the Mental Health Hospital in Abbasia, touched in some scenes on a group of well-known mental illnesses such as borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and paranoia.